他提出一种思路就是，人工地用芯片把受损的连接大脑内控制运动的运动皮层和脊髓中的神经元组织进行替换。 He suggested an idea that would artificially replace the damaged connection between the motor cortex, which is the area of the brain that controls movement, and motor neurons in the spinal cord.
这样的比较结果实际上排除掉了大脑所有的运动区，而主要有差异的区域出现在小脑接受脊髓传入的那一部分——小脑蚓部。 Again this subtraction removed virtually all the brain’s motor areas. The principal difference occurred in a part of the cerebellum that receives input from the spinal cord.
或许，总有一天，肠神经系统病变和某些疾病的因果关系会众所周知，恰如多发性硬化，中枢神经系统和脊髓之间的关系。 One day, perhaps there will be well-known connections between diseases and lesions in the gut's nervous system as some in the brain and spinal cord today indicate multiple sclerosis.
该团队在遗骨中发现一个称为枕骨髁的球形骨，这是所有哺乳动物和爬行动物身体中连接颅底和脊髓的部分。 Among the remains, the team noticed a spherical bone, called a basioccipital condyle, found in all mammals and reptiles that joins the base of the skull to the spinal cord.
脑膜炎是一种覆盖大脑和脊髓的组织被感染的疾病。 Meningitis is an infection of the tissue that covers the brain and spinalcord.
与脊髓损伤患者相比，脊柱裂患者因其固有的神经解剖异常，个体差异更为明显。 This variation is greater in spina bifida patients due to inherent neuroanatomic abnormalities compared with spinal cord injury patients.
我们的神经系统有可能如此进化，越来越复杂，实时消化和排泄，而勿需大脑通过脊髓中间人遥控指挥。 We likely evolved this intricate web of nerves to perform digestion and excretion "on site, " rather than remotely from our brains through the middleman of the spinal cord.
这样推测而言，这种组织能够用于治疗如糖尿病和脊髓受伤等情况。 And presumably, such transplants could help treat such conditions as diabetes and spinal cord injury.
克隆技术很有希望产生烧伤和其它事故受害者所需的再生肌肤、软骨和骨头组织，以及治疗脊髓损伤的神经组织。 It held great promise for producing replacement skin, cartilage, and bone tissue for burn and accident victims, and nerve tissue to treat spinal cord injuries.
但是这并未证明包含此基因的脊髓神经元或神经细胞是专门针对瘙痒的。 But that didn't prove that the spinal cord neurons, or nerve cells, that harbored this gene were itch-specific.
脑膜炎球菌性脑膜炎是一种细菌形式的脑膜炎，由于围绕大脑和脊髓的很薄的内皮发生严重感染而造成。 Meningococcal meningitis is a bacterial form of meningitis, a serious infection of the thin lining that surrounds the brain and spinal cord.
这种纳米纤维结构同时还能支持新的轴突沿着脊髓上下的生长。 The scaffold, meanwhile, supports the growth of new axons up and down the spinal cord.
脑膜瘤则诞生于脑膜中，而脊髓和大脑上都有膜片覆盖。 Meningiomas arise from the meninges, the membrane surrounding the spinal cord and brain.
通向以干细胞为基础的脊髓损伤疗法的道路目前还不甚明朗。 The path to stem cell based therapy for spinal cord injury is not a clear one.
结果是这两种感觉都根植在脊髓深处。 Rather, both sensations were rooted in the spinal cord.
对于神经损伤，慢性的后背或腿脚疼痛，甚至癫痫发作和帕金森症，这种智能芯片都能潜在地对抗几乎所有关联到疼痛和脊髓的任何疾病。 Nerve damage, chronic back or leg pain – even epileptic seizures and Parkinson's disease: the smart chip could potentially address almost any problem associated with pain and the spinal cord.
例如，移植到受损脊髓中的神经细胞可能修复脊髓，从而让患者行走。 For example, nerve cells implanted into a damaged spinal cord might repair it, allowing the patient to walk.